Through the lens of Western materialism, Leibniz’s monads look startling but there are a striking number of things Leibniz suggested but have turned out to be true. For example, Leibniz wasn’t an atomist and didn’t accept the existence of any fundamental indivisible body stating, “there is no atom, indeed, there is no body so small that it is not actually subdivided” and science has seen that atoms contain protons, electrons, quarks and so on.

Furthermore, quantum physics seems to have conscious experience written all over it with not only the outcome of a process depending on observers but it also looks like quantum particle such as electrons are themselves conscious and make decisions just like Leibniz suggested. In fact, there are several lines of enquiry to explain how consciousness can explain the known effects of both quantum physics and relativity. One approach is ‘Quantum Monadology’ which was created by Teruaki Nakagomi (1992) and takes its inspiration directly from Leibniz although crucially God and pre-determined necessity are no longer required. It is interesting that quantum monadology was created in order to combine quantum physics and relativity which it succeeded in doing.

In quantum monadology the world is made of a finite number, M, of quantum algebras called monads. There are no other elements making up the world, and so the world itself can be defined as the totality of M monads:

W = .,A1,A2,…,AM.”.

The world W is not space-time as space-time does not exist at the fundamental level, but emerges from mutual relations among monads. This can be seen by regarding each monad Ai as a quantum algebra and the world

W = .,A1,A2,…,AM..”

as an algebraically structured set of the quantum algebras called a tensor product of M monads. The mathematical structure of each quantum algebra representing each monad will be understood to represent the inner world of each monad. Correspondingly, the mathematical structure of the tensor product of M monads will be understood to represent the world W itself. To make the mathematical representation of the world of monads simpler, we assume each quantum algebra representing each monad to be a C* algebra A identical with each other, that is, Ai = A for all i running from 1 to M. Then, the world can be seen as a C* algebra W identical with the Mth tensor power of the C* algebra A.

It is interesting to notice that the world itself can be represented as the structured totality of the inner worlds of M monads. In addition to the individual state, each monad has an image of the world state recognised by itself; it is a world state belonging to each monad. Identifying the world state belonging to each monad with the world recognized by the monad, the conventional representation of the world as a four-dimensional space-time manifold can be derived from the above mutual relation in terms of the Lorentz or Poincaré group. Thus the idealistic concept of the unlimited expansion of space-time geometry in conventional physics is shown to be an imaginary common background for overlapping the world image recognised by every monad.

It would, therefore, appear quantum physics and relativity would work very well under the system of quantum monadology although it would require a philosophical earthquake before the mainstream scientists brought up under a materialistic view of the world would consider it.